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// AccelStepper.cpp
//
// Copyright (C) 2009-2013 Mike McCauley
// $Id: AccelStepper.cpp,v 1.17 2013/08/02 01:53:21 mikem Exp mikem $
#include "AccelStepper.h"
#if 0
// Some debugging assistance
void dump(uint8_t* p, int l)
{
int i;
for (i = 0; i < l; i++)
{
Serial.print(p[i], HEX);
Serial.print(" ");
}
Serial.println("");
}
#endif
void AccelStepper::moveTo(long absolute)
{
if (_targetPos != absolute)
{
_targetPos = absolute;
computeNewSpeed();
// compute new n?
}
}
void AccelStepper::move(long relative)
{
moveTo(_currentPos + relative);
}
// Implements steps according to the current step interval
// You must call this at least once per step
// returns true if a step occurred
boolean AccelStepper::runSpeed()
{
// Dont do anything unless we actually have a step interval
if (!_stepInterval)
return false;
unsigned long time = micros();
// Gymnastics to detect wrapping of either the nextStepTime and/or the current time
unsigned long nextStepTime = _lastStepTime + _stepInterval;
if ( ((nextStepTime >= _lastStepTime) && ((time >= nextStepTime) || (time < _lastStepTime)))
|| ((nextStepTime < _lastStepTime) && ((time >= nextStepTime) && (time < _lastStepTime))))
{
if (_direction == DIRECTION_CW)
{
// Clockwise
_currentPos += 1;
}
else
{
// Anticlockwise
_currentPos -= 1;
}
step(_currentPos);
_lastStepTime = time;
return true;
}
else
{
return false;
}
}
long AccelStepper::distanceToGo()
{
return _targetPos - _currentPos;
}
long AccelStepper::targetPosition()
{
return _targetPos;
}
long AccelStepper::currentPosition()
{
return _currentPos;
}
// Useful during initialisations or after initial positioning
// Sets speed to 0
void AccelStepper::setCurrentPosition(long position)
{
_targetPos = _currentPos = position;
_n = 0;
_stepInterval = 0;
}
void AccelStepper::computeNewSpeed()
{
long distanceTo = distanceToGo(); // +ve is clockwise from curent location
long stepsToStop = (long)((_speed * _speed) / (2.0 * _acceleration)); // Equation 16
if (distanceTo == 0 && stepsToStop <= 1)
{
// We are at the target and its time to stop
_stepInterval = 0;
_speed = 0.0;
_n = 0;
return;
}
if (distanceTo > 0)
{
// We are anticlockwise from the target
// Need to go clockwise from here, maybe decelerate now
if (_n > 0)
{
// Currently accelerating, need to decel now? Or maybe going the wrong way?
if ((stepsToStop >= distanceTo) || _direction == DIRECTION_CCW)
_n = -stepsToStop; // Start deceleration
}
else if (_n < 0)
{
// Currently decelerating, need to accel again?
if ((stepsToStop < distanceTo) && _direction == DIRECTION_CW)
_n = -_n; // Start accceleration
}
}
else if (distanceTo < 0)
{
// We are clockwise from the target
// Need to go anticlockwise from here, maybe decelerate
if (_n > 0)
{
// Currently accelerating, need to decel now? Or maybe going the wrong way?
if ((stepsToStop >= -distanceTo) || _direction == DIRECTION_CW)
_n = -stepsToStop; // Start deceleration
}
else if (_n < 0)
{
// Currently decelerating, need to accel again?
if ((stepsToStop < -distanceTo) && _direction == DIRECTION_CCW)
_n = -_n; // Start accceleration
}
}
// Need to accelerate or decelerate
if (_n == 0)
{
// First step from stopped
_cn = _c0;
_direction = (distanceTo > 0) ? DIRECTION_CW : DIRECTION_CCW;
}
else
{
// Subsequent step. Works for accel (n is +_ve) and decel (n is -ve).
_cn = _cn - ((2.0 * _cn) / ((4.0 * _n) + 1)); // Equation 13
_cn = max(_cn, _cmin);
}
_n++;
_stepInterval = _cn;
_speed = 1000000.0 / _cn;
if (_direction == DIRECTION_CCW)
_speed = -_speed;
#if 0
Serial.println(_speed);
Serial.println(_acceleration);
Serial.println(_cn);
Serial.println(_c0);
Serial.println(_n);
Serial.println(_stepInterval);
Serial.println(distanceTo);
Serial.println(stepsToStop);
Serial.println("-----");
#endif
}
// Run the motor to implement speed and acceleration in order to proceed to the target position
// You must call this at least once per step, preferably in your main loop
// If the motor is in the desired position, the cost is very small
// returns true if the motor is still running to the target position.
boolean AccelStepper::run()
{
if (runSpeed())
computeNewSpeed();
return _speed != 0.0 || distanceToGo() != 0;
}
AccelStepper::AccelStepper(uint8_t interface, uint8_t pin1, uint8_t pin2, uint8_t pin3, uint8_t pin4, bool enable)
{
_interface = interface;
_currentPos = 0;
_targetPos = 0;
_speed = 0.0;
_maxSpeed = 1.0;
_acceleration = 1.0;
_sqrt_twoa = 1.0;
_stepInterval = 0;
_minPulseWidth = 1;
_enablePin = 0xff;
_lastStepTime = 0;
_pin[0] = pin1;
_pin[1] = pin2;
_pin[2] = pin3;
_pin[3] = pin4;
// NEW
_n = 0;
_c0 = 0.0;
_cn = 0.0;
_cmin = 1.0;
_direction = DIRECTION_CCW;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
_pinInverted[i] = 0;
if (enable)
enableOutputs();
}
AccelStepper::AccelStepper(void (*forward)(), void (*backward)())
{
_interface = 0;
_currentPos = 0;
_targetPos = 0;
_speed = 0.0;
_maxSpeed = 1.0;
_acceleration = 1.0;
_sqrt_twoa = 1.0;
_stepInterval = 0;
_minPulseWidth = 1;
_enablePin = 0xff;
_lastStepTime = 0;
_pin[0] = 0;
_pin[1] = 0;
_pin[2] = 0;
_pin[3] = 0;
_forward = forward;
_backward = backward;
// NEW
_n = 0;
_c0 = 0.0;
_cn = 0.0;
_cmin = 1.0;
_direction = DIRECTION_CCW;
int i;
for (i = 0; i < 4; i++)
_pinInverted[i] = 0;
}
void AccelStepper::setMaxSpeed(float speed)
{
if (_maxSpeed != speed)
{
_maxSpeed = speed;
_cmin = 1000000.0 / speed;
// Recompute _n from current speed and adjust speed if accelerating or cruising
if (_n > 0)
{
_n = (long)((_speed * _speed) / (2.0 * _acceleration)); // Equation 16
computeNewSpeed();
}
}
}
void AccelStepper::setAcceleration(float acceleration)
{
if (acceleration == 0.0)
return;
if (_acceleration != acceleration)
{
// Recompute _n per Equation 17
_n = _n * (_acceleration / acceleration);
// New c0 per Equation 7
_c0 = sqrt(2.0 / acceleration) * 1000000.0;
_acceleration = acceleration;
computeNewSpeed();
}
}
void AccelStepper::setSpeed(float speed)
{
if (speed == _speed)
return;
speed = constrain(speed, -_maxSpeed, _maxSpeed);
if (speed == 0.0)
_stepInterval = 0;
else
{
_stepInterval = fabs(1000000.0 / speed);
_direction = (speed > 0.0) ? DIRECTION_CW : DIRECTION_CCW;
}
_speed = speed;
}
float AccelStepper::speed()
{
return _speed;
}
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step(long step)
{
switch (_interface)
{
case FUNCTION:
step0(step);
break;
case DRIVER:
step1(step);
break;
case FULL2WIRE:
step2(step);
break;
case FULL3WIRE:
step3(step);
break;
case FULL4WIRE:
step4(step);
break;
case HALF3WIRE:
step6(step);
break;
case HALF4WIRE:
step8(step);
break;
}
}
// You might want to override this to implement eg serial output
// bit 0 of the mask corresponds to _pin[0]
// bit 1 of the mask corresponds to _pin[1]
// ....
void AccelStepper::setOutputPins(uint8_t mask)
{
uint8_t numpins = 2;
if (_interface == FULL4WIRE || _interface == HALF4WIRE)
numpins = 4;
uint8_t i;
for (i = 0; i < numpins; i++)
digitalWrite(_pin[i], (mask & (1 << i)) ? (HIGH ^ _pinInverted[i]) : (LOW ^ _pinInverted[i]));
}
// 0 pin step function (ie for functional usage)
void AccelStepper::step0(long step)
{
if (_speed > 0)
_forward();
else
_backward();
}
// 1 pin step function (ie for stepper drivers)
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step1(long step)
{
// _pin[0] is step, _pin[1] is direction
setOutputPins(_direction ? 0b10 : 0b00); // Set direction first else get rogue pulses
setOutputPins(_direction ? 0b11 : 0b01); // step HIGH
// Caution 200ns setup time
// Delay the minimum allowed pulse width
delayMicroseconds(_minPulseWidth);
setOutputPins(_direction ? 0b10 : 0b00); // step LOW
}
// 2 pin step function
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step2(long step)
{
switch (step & 0x3)
{
case 0: /* 01 */
setOutputPins(0b10);
break;
case 1: /* 11 */
setOutputPins(0b11);
break;
case 2: /* 10 */
setOutputPins(0b01);
break;
case 3: /* 00 */
setOutputPins(0b00);
break;
}
}
// 3 pin step function
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step3(long step)
{
switch (step % 3)
{
case 0: // 100
setOutputPins(0b100);
break;
case 1: // 001
setOutputPins(0b001);
break;
case 2: //010
setOutputPins(0b010);
break;
}
}
// 4 pin step function for half stepper
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step4(long step)
{
switch (step & 0x3)
{
case 0: // 1010
setOutputPins(0b0101);
break;
case 1: // 0110
setOutputPins(0b0110);
break;
case 2: //0101
setOutputPins(0b1010);
break;
case 3: //1001
setOutputPins(0b1001);
break;
}
}
// 3 pin half step function
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step6(long step)
{
switch (step % 6)
{
case 0: // 100
setOutputPins(0b100);
break;
case 1: // 101
setOutputPins(0b101);
break;
case 2: // 001
setOutputPins(0b001);
break;
case 3: // 011
setOutputPins(0b011);
break;
case 4: // 010
setOutputPins(0b010);
break;
case 5: // 011
setOutputPins(0b110);
break;
}
}
// 4 pin half step function
// This is passed the current step number (0 to 7)
// Subclasses can override
void AccelStepper::step8(long step)
{
switch (step & 0x7)
{
case 0: // 1000
setOutputPins(0b0001);
break;
case 1: // 1010
setOutputPins(0b0101);
break;
case 2: // 0010
setOutputPins(0b0100);
break;
case 3: // 0110
setOutputPins(0b0110);
break;
case 4: // 0100
setOutputPins(0b0010);
break;
case 5: //0101
setOutputPins(0b1010);
break;
case 6: // 0001
setOutputPins(0b1000);
break;
case 7: //1001
setOutputPins(0b1001);
break;
}
}
// Prevents power consumption on the outputs
void AccelStepper::disableOutputs()
{
if (! _interface) return;
setOutputPins(0); // Handles inversion automatically
if (_enablePin != 0xff)
digitalWrite(_enablePin, LOW ^ _enableInverted);
}
void AccelStepper::enableOutputs()
{
if (! _interface)
return;
pinMode(_pin[0], OUTPUT);
pinMode(_pin[1], OUTPUT);
if (_interface == FULL4WIRE || _interface == HALF4WIRE)
{
pinMode(_pin[2], OUTPUT);
pinMode(_pin[3], OUTPUT);
}
if (_enablePin != 0xff)
{
pinMode(_enablePin, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(_enablePin, HIGH ^ _enableInverted);
}
}
void AccelStepper::setMinPulseWidth(unsigned int minWidth)
{
_minPulseWidth = minWidth;
}
void AccelStepper::setEnablePin(uint8_t enablePin)
{
_enablePin = enablePin;
// This happens after construction, so init pin now.
if (_enablePin != 0xff)
{
pinMode(_enablePin, OUTPUT);
digitalWrite(_enablePin, HIGH ^ _enableInverted);
}
}
void AccelStepper::setPinsInverted(bool directionInvert, bool stepInvert, bool enableInvert)
{
_pinInverted[0] = stepInvert;
_pinInverted[1] = directionInvert;
_enableInverted = enableInvert;
}
void AccelStepper::setPinsInverted(bool pin1Invert, bool pin2Invert, bool pin3Invert, bool pin4Invert, bool enableInvert)
{
_pinInverted[0] = pin1Invert;
_pinInverted[1] = pin2Invert;
_pinInverted[2] = pin3Invert;
_pinInverted[3] = pin4Invert;
_enableInverted = enableInvert;
}
// Blocks until the target position is reached and stopped
void AccelStepper::runToPosition()
{
while (run())
;
}
boolean AccelStepper::runSpeedToPosition()
{
if (_targetPos == _currentPos)
return false;
if (_targetPos >_currentPos)
_direction = DIRECTION_CW;
else
_direction = DIRECTION_CCW;
return runSpeed();
}
// Blocks until the new target position is reached
void AccelStepper::runToNewPosition(long position)
{
moveTo(position);
runToPosition();
}
void AccelStepper::stop()
{
if (_speed != 0.0)
{
long stepsToStop = (long)((_speed * _speed) / (2.0 * _acceleration)) + 1; // Equation 16 (+integer rounding)
if (_speed > 0)
move(stepsToStop);
else
move(-stepsToStop);
}
}